The Impact of Gut Bacterial Metabolites on Brain Disorder
The gut microbiome has been connected with human health and sickness, including all those affecting the brain, according to new evidence. Abnormalities in this microbiota-gut-brain axis have emerged as a significant component in the pathophysiology of depression, prompting exploratory research into the neuro-active potential of gut microbial metabolic products. Over the last decade, research has revealed a plethora of complicated interactions between the microbiota and the immunological and metabolic systems, many of which have important consequences for human health. Therefore in review, we emphasise accumulating evidence suggesting the microbiome exerts effect on the brain via multiple routes linking the stomach to the central nervous system. While knowledge of the influence of gut bacteria on neurological function is still developing, understanding the gut-microbiome-brain links has the potential to transform neuroscience by discovering possibly new etiologies for mental and neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, our results show that patients with diverse brain disorders have changed bacterial metabolites, as well as the possible neuroactive effects of gut-derived SCFAs, p-cresol, serotonin derivatives, and bacterial amyloids on disease onset and progression. The results of this study might lead to more understanding of the gut–brain axis and, as a response, to possible diagnostic, therapeutic, or preventative measures for brain disorders.
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