FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES http://fcs.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs <p>Frontiers in Chemical Sciences is a biannual Journal published from Department of Chemistry, The Women University, Multan. Journal covers the concepts, innovation and Research in all branches of chemistry including Applied, Analytical, Organic, Inorganic, Physical and Biochemistry and their sub-disciplines. FCS publishes original article<strong>, </strong>review article<strong>, </strong>short communications of a high scientific and ethical standard in the Chemical sciences.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF </strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Dr Uzma Quraishi</strong></p> <p>Vice Chancellor</p> <p>The Women University, Multan.</p> <p><strong>EDITOR-IN-CHIEF </strong></p> <p><strong>Dr. Sara Musaddiq</strong> (Director QEC)</p> <p>Department of Chemistry</p> <p>The Women University, Multan.</p> The Women University Multan en-US FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES 2707-6024 Physicochemical Analysis of Different Brands of Chocolates and Their Comparative Studies http://fcs.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/7 <p>There is no metaphysics on earth like chocolate.” Chocolate is a blessing which contain almost all nutrients necessary for the growth of human health. In this study, composition of different branded chocolates available in Pakistan including Dairy milk, Chocolate chip, Toblerone (black), Toblerone (sweet), Nutella, Smarties, Now, Sonnet, Novella and Snickers were qualitatively analyzed in triplicate. We successfully study proteins, fats, carbohydrates, sugar, alcohol, caffeine, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and nickel in different branded chocolates. From the results it is confirmed that pH of all chocolates are 6-9 depend on the concentration of cocoa which is same as reported in literature. All the chocolates contain high amount of fats, sugar and carbohydrates. Protein is present in excess amount in Chocolate chips and Snickers while Smarties, Sonnet and Novella contain small amount of protein but absent in rest of chocolate samples. None of the chocolate sample contain traces of alcohol. All chocolates contain calcium except Nutella, Now and Toblerone (black) while magnesium is only present in Smarties. All chocolates contain nickel except Sonnet and Now, zinc is absent in Sonnet, Now, Smarties and Nutella whileiron is only present in Dairy milk and chocolate chips. Some samples like Dairy milk, Chocolate chip, Toblerone (black), Snickers and Toblerone (sweet) contain traces of caffeine which act as stimulant and reduced liver damage. From the given results it is also confirmed that chocolates contain important ingredients which are helpful for proper body functioning.</p> Mussarat Jabeen Marryam Imran Ayesha Nawab Ayesha Ihsan Amna Ajmal Sadia Mubeen Sajida Parveen Wania Adan Ansa Madeeha Zafar Noreen Aslam Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 2 1 8 10.52700/fcs.v1i2.7 Biochemical, Phytochemical and Antioxidant Analysis of Leaves and Seed of Fenugreek Plant http://fcs.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/8 <p>In the present study leaves and seeds of two different varieties of Fenugreek plant viz. Trigonella foenum gracium and Trigonella corniculata, collected from Bahawalpur, Pakistan were subjected to the biochemical, phytochemical and antioxidant analysis. The content of total sugars, non reducing sugars and reducing sugars in selected parts of these varities were found to be 5.007±0.101 to 8.133±0.223, 4.255±0.150 to 7.099±0.316 and 0.751±0.064 to 1.410±0.071 g/100g of dry weight respectively. Water soluble, salt soluble and total salt soluble protein content range from 1.172±0.001 to 6.015±0.132, 1.517±0.038 to 1.174±0.006 and 0.013±0.001 to 0.018±0.001 g/100 g of dry weight respectively and the total free amino acids ranged from 1.198±0.014 to 4.554±0.006 g/100 g of dry weight. The range of tannins and saponin contents in analyzed parts of these varities was found to be 0.057±0.009 to 0.117±0.025 and 0.083±0.012 to 0.0151±0.045 g /100g of dry weight respectively. Similarly, flavonoids and hydrogen cyanide content ranged from 0.021±0.000 to 0.055±0.004 and 0.0234±0.008 to 0.307±0.009 g/100g of dry weight respectively; while ascorbic acid content was found to be in the range of 0.068±0.08 to 0.267±0.031 g/100g of dry weight. Total phenolic acid content of the selected parts of these varities were estimated on the basis of difference in dipole moment and its range was observed from 0.0539±0.024 to 0.856±0.064 g/100g of dry weight. The total antioxidants analysis showed that ascorbic acid and trolox contents (mg Eqv./100g of extract) were found to be lower in Trigonella corniculata seeds (0.066±0.001 and 0.047±0.001 mg Eqv./100g respectively) and higher in Trigonella corniculata leaves (0.069±0.001 and 0.050±0.001 mg Eqv./100g respectively).The DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power were found to be in the range of 31.736±2.430 to 39.590±2.432 and 0.974±0.231 to 2.301±0.068 respectively. The different parts of studied varities of fenugreek plant, having higher values of %DPPH inhibition and reducing power showed least count of IC50 and vice versa.</p> Haq Nawaz Hina Andaleeb Sobia Aziz Saba Rehman Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 2 9 18 10.52700/fcs.v1i2.8 A Synthesis and Pharmaceutical Evaluation of Pyrimidine Derivatives and Their Docking Studies http://fcs.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/9 <p>A series of halogenated pyrimidine derivatives tetrahydropyrimidine; Ethyl-6-methyl2-oxo-4-phenyl-1,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate (10a), Ethyl-4-(3-<br />Chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5- carboxylate (10b) and<br />Ethyl-4-(4-Chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-<br />carboxylate (10c) were synthesized by using new strategy in “Grindstone protocol “to<br />get high yield in short time. The synthesized compounds werecharacterized by 1HNMR, 13C-NMR and Mass spectral data and evaluated for their anticancer<br />activityagainsthuman HepG2 Liver cell lines, for antifungal and insecticidal activities.<br />All the synthesized compounds (10a-c) were studied to measure the interactions by<br />docking study.</p> Nusrat Shafiq Azhar Rasul Sonia Ashraf Shagufta Parveen Sania Zafar Iqbal Ki Hyun Kim Rashid Khan Basharat Ali Farhat Jabeen Sadia Naureen Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 2 19 28 10.52700/fcs.v1i2.9 Probiotic as Immune Modulator; A New Trend in Medication http://fcs.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/10 <p>Probiotics are live microbes that confer beneficial health effects to the host when administered in sufficient amount. The dead bacteria may express the properties of probiotic components. The most common strains of probiotics are lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, these are also present in functional food stuffs mostly in dairy and fermented foods. The use of probiotics based on the goal of producing food microbes that are healthy for intestine and food ingestion. Basically, the purpose of probiotics is to prevent from pathogens and maintain the proper gastrointestinal functions. The probiotics ameliorate many digestive disorders included, lactose intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome and antibiotic associated diarrhea. Probiotics also treat other diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, liver diseases, cancer and in the treatment of HIV. The patients of HIV who are on antiretroviral therapy, they, may have dysbiosis of gut microbiom. The probiotics are useful for the prevention of immunological activity of gut. Probiotics have different mechanism of action such as colonization of perturbed microbes in intestine, pathogens exclusion competitively, mucin production cell adhesion, production of short chain fatty acids and immune system modulation mainly differentiate the T regs and increase the regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) and growth factors.</p> Zahed Mahmood Muazzama Zahid Muhammad Jahangeer Areej Riasat Naveed Munir Muhammad Asad Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 2 29 58 10.52700/fcs.v1i2.10 Anti MRSA and Antiviral Evaluation of Nano Silver Against Avian Influenza virus http://fcs.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/11 <p>Preparation of nano sized silver particles was performed by using flower extract of Aerva javanica (AJ). Conversion of Ag+ ions to nanoscaled Ago was carried out in 90 min reaction by green approach. Antiviral potential of nanosilver (NS) was evaluated against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) strain H9N2, in 9-11 days old chicken embryonated eggs. Synthesized particles were also screened against four methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains by well diffusion method. Formation of spherical particles was confirmed by SPR band at 428 nm. XRD analysis confirmed face centred cubic crystal structure of particles with average particle size of 15 nm as calculated by Debye–Scherrer’s formula. Remarkable anti AIV activity was observed from NS particles with IC50 value 50 ?g/ml and this value is 200 times greater control drug i.e., Amantadine. Synthesized particles were also screened against four methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains by well diffusion method. Significantly high antiviral and antibacterial activities were observed from nanosilver particles against AIV H9N2 and all four MRSA strains.<br>Keywords:</p> Muhammad Sannan Ahmad Hira Musaddiq Mirza Imran Shahzad Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 2 59 66 10.52700/fcs.v1i2.11