FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES <p>Frontiers in Chemical Sciences is a biannual Journal published from Department of Chemistry, The Women University, Multan. Journal covers the concepts, innovation and Research in all branches of chemistry including Applied, Analytical, Organic, Inorganic, Physical and Biochemistry and their sub-disciplines. FCS publishes original article<strong>, </strong>review article<strong>, </strong>short communications of a high scientific and ethical standard in the Chemical sciences.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF </strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Dr Uzma Quraishi</strong></p> <p>Vice Chancellor</p> <p>The Women University, Multan.</p> <p><strong>EDITOR-IN-CHIEF </strong></p> <p><strong>Dr. Sara Musaddiq</strong> (Director QEC)</p> <p>Department of Chemistry</p> <p>The Women University, Multan.</p> The Women University Multan en-US FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES 2707-6024 Prevalence and In-silico Analysis of Cardiac Enzyme and Serum Lipid Enzyme in Acute Coronary Syndrome patients <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">The objectives of this study: Prevalence and in-silico analysis of lipid and cardiac enzymes in ACS patients. A total of 213 (137 male and 76 female) blood samples were taken from cardiac patients. After prevalence analysis was done on blood samples of patients &amp; to check the biomarker level of all cardiac and lipid enzymes in all patients to find out the acute coronary syndrome. Statical analysis was done using the spss 21 software and In-silico analysis was also done in this study. In statical analysis, correlation showed a relationship with lipid, cardiac, walk and exercise with significant level P&lt;0.05, 0.01. Smoking and walk have a positive relationship with cardiac and lipid enzymes show a negative relationship with smoking and exercise with sig. level p&lt; 0.05. The regression analysis has shown CPK, C.K.M.B, LDH, V.L.D.L. positively and significantly predicted with smoking. Cholesterol, Triglyceride, AST negatively and significantly predicted with smoking which shows that F has 17.602% and R esquire has a .339% variation with smoking.&nbsp;</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Insilco analysis shows that Selenocysteine, Asparagine, and Lysine are binding residues involved in TSP1-human and TIQ ligand in molecular docking. ligand and protein, have -5.7 is the lowest energy and distance between is 3.137 to 5.829. More exercise could reduce ACS problems in cardiac patients. New markers and therapies are discovered in the future for biotechnologies.</span></p> Muqaddas Shafique Amara Masood Hira Mubeen Nadia Iqbal Farah Deeba Raheela Jabeen Maryam Zain Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 3 1 1 15 10.52700/fcs.v3i1.28 Proximate Body Composition Analysis of Two Commercially Important Members of Cyprinidae Family (Catla catla and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) From Southern Punjab, Pakistan <p>The present Study proposed to evaluate the body composition of Catla catla and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix collected from southern Punjab, Pakistan. Collected fishes samples werebrought to fisheries lab for further analysis. The mean value for water, fat, protein and ash as water is 75.1%; Ash in wet and dry weight 4.07 and 16.4; Fat in wet and dry weight 5.2 and 20.8; Protein content in wet and dry weight 15.62 and 62.66 respectively in C. catla. The value for mean and ranges for water, fat, protein and ash as water is 77.27%; Ash in wet and dry weight 4.20 and 5.21; Fat in wet and dry weight 1.55 and 6.10; Protein content in wet and dry weight 3.22 and 5.27 respectively in H. molitrix. Percent water showed highly significant correlation with all the body constituents except percent fat dry weight whichshowed non-significant correlation. All of the values showed a negative correlation with percent water except with percent ash wet and dry weight whichshowed positive correlation in C. catla. Body weight showed highly significant positive correaltion with all body constituents except the relationship with percent water, percent ash dry and wet weight in C. catla. A non-significant correlation with percent protein dry weight, a significant positive correlation with percent protein and fat wet; a least significant correlation with percent fat and ash dry weight while highly significant correlation with percent water in H. molitrix. Total length showed a highly significant negative correlation with log water, fat and protein content except ash whichshowed non-significant negative correlation in C. catla while highly significant negative correlation with log water, ash, fat and protein content in H. molitrix.</p> Muhammad Khalid Muhammad Farooq Ahmed Ali Abid Mahmood Alvi Sheikh Muhammad Azam Shaikh Muhammad Abdullah Shoaib Hassan Ali Zafar Khakwani Muhammad Imran Tauseef Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 3 1 17 23 10.52700/fcs.v3i1.38 Effect of Commercial & Natural Feeds on the Growth Performance of Ostrich (Struthio camelus) in Captivity <p>In Pakistan, ostrich farming is becoming more popular as a means of obtaining inexpensive meat that is also devoid of cholesterol and other diseases when compared to chicken. In the wild, ostriches dwell in flocks of five to fifty and perform well in captivity. Ostrich chicks' early development rate is critical in preparing the bird for later growth up till the slaughter mass. The original egg mass from which the bird emerges determines the hatching weight. Ostrich chicks lose up to 20% of their weight in the first five to seven days after hatching.The typical carcass weight of an ostrich might be 57-58 percent of the live body weight.On a monthly basis, weight and height were determined, and given feed was calculated on a daily basis. The variation in growth rates between the two farms is due to the fact that the Balouch ostrich farm has far better conditions for birds and provides more food, whilst the Hamayoon ostrich farm has a lower growth rate due to restricted food availability. Furthermore, the death rate is linked to a lack of food.</p> Sheikh Muhammad Azam Ahmad Ali Mohammad Kashif Muhammad Khalid Saif Ur Rehman Muhammad Faizan Muhammad Imran Tauseef Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 3 1 25 30 10.52700/fcs.v3i1.37 Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities from Extracts of Selected Cholistani Plants <p>The Cholistani plants are used as a vital source of medicines by local nomads for a long time. According to recent studies, many pharmacological studies like antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antidiabetic were done, but very few chemistry-based approaches are available. The current study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial potentials of extracts of Cholistani plants. Aqueous, ethanol, and n-hexane extracts were prepared, and extraction was done based on polarity. All the extracts were evaluated for antibacterial activities through the disc diffusion method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of each positive extract was measured. The results indicated that the aqueous extract of these plants was more effective than others. The overall trend of antibacterial activity was as follows aqueous &gt;n-hexane &gt;ethanol extracts in terms of solvent. In terms of bacteria, almost all extracts were effective against <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em>. The overall antibacterial trend was <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em>&gt;<em>Proteus vulgaris</em>&gt;<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>&gt;<em>Escherichia coli</em>&gt;<em>Pseudomonas aeuriginosa</em>. The results indicate that Cholistani plants are a rich source of antibacterial agent(s) and can be used in crude or purified form.</p> Mirza Imran Shahzad Summayya Anwar Jaweria Aslam Aasma Manzoor Hina Ashraf Noor Saba Mariam Naseer Uzma Rani Zahra Aslam Zahid Kamran Mussarat Ramzan Shakeel Ahmad Muhammad Arshad Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 3 1 31 44 10.52700/fcs.v3i1.50 Ve-degree and Ev-degree Based Topological Properties of Magnesium Oxide MgO (111) Structures <p>The topological index is a numerical representation of a molecular structure and predicts the physical property of a chemical compound. In the present work, we have developed explicit expressions of recently defined novel Ve- degrees and Ev-degrees based topological indices of Magnesium Oxide MgO (111). For this by consider a unit cell of MgO (111) which is extended to its general structure. After that, we have computed Ve-degrees and Ev-degrees of this general structure of MgO (111) then by employing well-known topological indices on these computed Ve- degrees and Ev-degrees of the general structure, obtained numerical results. A variety of graphical invariants have been described and tested, offering lots of applications in the fields of nano-chemistry, computational networks, and indifferent scientific research areas. These computed results will help study the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the structure such as boiling, melting, and flickering point; moisture and forming heat; temperature, strain, density, etc.</p> Muhammad Naeem Zafar Iqbal Saba Maqbool Tahir Mushtaq Qureshi Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 3 1 45 55 10.52700/fcs.v3i1.39 Effects of Combined Stresses of Salinity (NaCl) and Heavy Metal (NiCl2) Levels on Seed Germination and Growth of Citrullus colocynthis l. <p>Salinity and heavy metal stresses are a great hindrance to the germination and development of plants. Nickel (Ni) is an indispensable micronutrient for plants at low concentrations. However, the proficiency depends upon the plant types. Citrullus colocynth is a medicinal cucurbit weed. The contemporary target of the study is to appraise the influence of combined stresses by varying concentrations of sodium chloride and nickel chloride on germination, morphology, biochemical ions, and physiology of C. colocynth. Germination percentage, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight, number of leaves, Na+, K+, Ca++, Cl-, Ni+, chlorophyll a and b, proline, SOD and CAT of C. colocynth were measured with nine combined levels (100 mM NaCl + 50 uM NiCl2), (200 mM NaCl + 50 uM NiCl2), (400 mM NaCl + 50 uM NiCl2), (100 mM NaCl + 100 uM NiCl2), (200 mM NaCl +100 uM NiCl2), (400 mM NaCl +100 uM NiCl2), (100 mM NaCl + 200 uM NiCl2), (200 mM NaCl + 200 uM NiCl2) and (400 mM NaCl +200 uM NiCl2). This experiment was conceded out in a completely randomized design with four replications. Germination percentage, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight, and the number of leaves, K+, Ca++, chlorophyll a, and b decreased by increasing stress levels while Na+, Cl-, Ni+, Proline, SOD, and CAT increased with increasing stress levels. This species has a positive morpho-physiological response under low(100mM NaCl, 50 uM NiCl2) and moderate (200mM NaCl, 100 uM NiCl2) combinations of salt and heavy metals while tolerance was observed under high-stress levels(400mM NaCl, 200 uM NiCl2). It is concluded that this species can be recommended for phytoremdiation against combined salt and heavy metal stresses.</p> Hassan Raza Javeed Nargis Naz Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 3 1 57 77 10.52700/fcs.v3i1.51 In Ovo Antiviral Screening of Cholistani Plants Against Swine Influenza Virus and Confirmation Through Real Time PCR <p>Cholistani plants are a rich source of many biological/pharmacological agents. Recent studies have supported the idea that cholistani plants are rich in antimicrobial agents especially against viruses. Medicinal plants like Haloxylon recurvum, Salsola baryosma, and Achyranthes aspera hold the potential to control viruses like Avian Influenza and Swine Influenza. Prevention by vaccination is the best treatment so far, but some side effects are associated with vaccines alone or in combination with other influenza virus strains. Eleven different Cholistani plants (H. recurvum, H. salicornicum, A. aspera, Suaeda fruticosa, Sporobolus icolados, Solanum surattense, Ochthochloa compressa, Neurada procumbens, Panicum antidotal, Oxystelma esculentum, and Salsola baryosma) were selected and tested against SI strian H1N1. The samples were washed and dried under shade at RT. All the plants were ground and used in making extracts using different solvents. The SIV H1N1 isolate was confirmed through real-time (rt) PCR and then subjected to 9-11 days old chick embryonated eggs. Eggs were candled and viability of embroy was confirmed. After 48hrs, allantoic fluids were collected, and viral loads were also confirmed through HA test and RT-PCR. Most of the extracts were found effective in controlling growth of the virus. Among these, n-hexane and ethanol (EtOH) extracts were found most effective, and all extracts were active against SIV H1N1. In the case of ethyl acetate and methanol (MtOH) 9 out of 11, similarly, in n-butanol (BtOH),7 out of 11 extracts were active against SIV H1N1. All the results were first confirmed HA test and later through rt-PCR. The virus was not detected in the outcomes of rt-PCR, confirming the antiviral potentials of extracts of Cholistani plants. This study strongly supported the idea that Cholistani plants are a rich source of antiviral agents and can be used in pure and crude form.</p> Mirza Imran Shahzad Mahboob Ahmed Nadeem Asghar Hina Ashraf Summayya Anwar Mussarat Ramzan Jaweria Aslam Muhammad Arshad Sana Zahoor Muhammad Tariq Perwaiz Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 3 1 79 89 10.52700/fcs.v3i1.49