FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES <p>Frontiers in Chemical Sciences is a biannual Journal published from Department of Chemistry, The Women University, Multan. Journal covers the concepts, innovation and Research in all branches of chemistry including Applied, Analytical, Organic, Inorganic, Physical and Biochemistry and their sub-disciplines. FCS publishes original article<strong>, </strong>review article<strong>, </strong>short communications of a high scientific and ethical standard in the Chemical sciences.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF </strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Dr Uzma Quraishi</strong></p> <p>Vice Chancellor,</p> <p>The Women University, Multan.</p> <p><strong>EDITOR-IN-CHIEF </strong></p> <p><strong>Dr. Sara Musaddiq</strong></p> <p>Associate Professor/Chairperson, Department of Chemistry</p> <p>The Women University, Multan.</p> en-US (Dr. Sara Musaddiq) (Asghar Ali) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 A Comprehensive Review: Drug Interactions and Polypharmacy <p>The aim of our study is to identify the drug interactions due to polypharmacy. A medication interaction happens when the impact of one medication is changed in the presence of other. The effect of interfacing drugs can be controlled securely without<br>causing any harm to the patient through cautious checking and dose change. Polypharmacy is portrayed as "the utilization of various medicines or potentially the combination of a greater number of prescriptions that are clinically prescribed, leading<br>to superfluous medication use. Polypharmacy includes the number of medicines taken by the patient, the provision of at least one wrong medicine, or a combination of both, which can expand the danger for adverse medication occasions, underutilization of<br>drug, and redundancy of medication. Polypharmacy Management is an entire framework approach that upgrades the consideration of multimorbid patients through amplifying advantage while decreasing the dangers of improper polypharmacy. The review and assessment of prescription is an intercession that should be ordinarily performed by clinical drug specialists to improve the drug therapy results, medicine’s adverse impact and guaranteed the use of ideal prescription. There should be a proper and strong role and communication of physicians, pharmacists, and patients in society, especially in developing countries. The potential risk factors should be identified, like the interaction of diet with the drug therapy so that adverse reactions can be identified and avoided.</p> Dua Fatima, Faiza Waseem, Tehseen Riaz, Irfan Bashir, Tooba Mehboob Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Overview of Toll Like Receptor in Cardiovascular Disease <p>The study of the TLR (Toll-like receptor) family has progressed our knowledge of the intrinsic insusceptible framework. The familiar resistant of microorganisms' constitutive and protected substances is the reason for intrinsic insusceptible response.&nbsp; Similarly, TLRs can be blocked by damaging substances. Favorable to provocative cytokines are created when TLRs are actuated by microbial or have determined mixtures that can be valuable or unsafe to the host. TLRs are found in an assortment of organs, including those of the cardiovascular framework, notwithstanding invulnerable cells. This review takes a gander at the job of TLRs in septic cardiomyopathy, viral myocarditis, there is a lack of knowledge not only about the role of clear to the TLRs in starting and coordinating homoeostatic processes inside the heart, but also about stressed actuated TLR enactment in cardiovascular framework tissues. As per mounting proof, TLRs might assume a part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, viral myocarditis, widened cardiomyopathy, heart allograft dismissal, and sepsis-actuated left ventricular brokenness.</p> Asif Shahzad, Shoukat Hussain, Qurat-ul-ain Shahzad, Abdul Karim, Rizwan Mehmood, Muhammad Faheem, Anam Niamat, Salman Azam, Nazima Anwaar, Amreen Aftab Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Improvised and Eco-Friendly Natural pH-Paper Indicators <p>A substance that changes color when pH changes is referred to as an indicator. Synthetic indicators, which are expensive and toxic, are currently the best option for estimating acid-base concentrations or hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations. This study aims to prepare pH paper indicators from natural sources to overcome this problem. Indicator strips of this type are eco-friendly, cheap, durable, non-toxic, biodegradable, and easy to prepare even at home. In this application, we are using natural sources such as turmeric (<em>Curcuma longa</em>), rose (<em>Rosa Indica</em>), beetroot (<em>Beta vulgaris</em>), and red cabbage (<em>Brassica oleracea</em>) for the preparation of pH paper indicator strips. We used 73 acids, bases, and neutrals solutions to conduct comparative studies. These include fifty-nine household chemicals, such as milk, lemon, mango, honey, glycine, etc., and fourteen standard solutions of acids and bases of pH from 1 to 14. By dipping yellow-colored turmeric acidic paper into sodium hydroxide, we transform yellow-colored turmeric acidic paper into red-colored turmeric basic paper. The results are the same in both cases, i.e., turns yellow in acids and red in bases but unaffected in neutrals. Rose paper easily differentiates acids and bases while red cabbage gives almost the same results as pH paper (wide color change from red to dark blue). As these can be easily prepared and give comparable results with commonly used paper indicators, it would be possible to replace synthetic paper indicators.</p> Mussarat Jabeen, Kainat Tariq, Atiya Rehman, Noreen Aslam, Anas M. Zafar, Syed Ubaid Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Medical Approach for Rhinoplasty <p>Rhinoplasty is one of the most commonly performed aesthetic surgical procedures in plastic surgery. Over the past 20 years, one of the most gratifying operations performed by facial plastic surgeons remains rhinoplasty. Both surgeries and patients may feel like they are running "home" when everything is running as scheduled, but mutual sadness may also occur when the outcome is different. Many of the typical complexities can be prevented with careful attention to particular operational maneuvers with intentional actions, extra grafts, or more conservative resections during the main rhino-plastic procedure. A view of these retrospective problems may reveal typical risks that are preemptive when the procedure is performed. Due to the subjective character of the esthetic outcome, the identification of problems in cosmetic rhinoplasty is challenging. One may expect rhino-plastic patients more critical of the outcomes, but our experience as well as those of others suggest that the surgeon is more likely than the patient to be satisfied. With a subsequent medial collapse, the ULCs might become destabilized. Moreover, the new dorsal septum produced by the excision of the hump is smaller than the original native dorsum. Even if the ULCs shrink solidly to the septum, a constricted middle vault region will be created.</p> Asif Shahzad, Shoukat Hussain, Abdul Karim, Hafiz Muhammad Aamir Farooq, Salman Azam, Usman Hameed Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Gut Bacterial Metabolites on Brain Disorder <p>The gut microbiome has been connected with human health and sickness, including all those affecting the brain, according to new evidence. Abnormalities in this microbiota-gut-brain axis have emerged as a significant component in the pathophysiology of depression, prompting exploratory research into the neuro-active potential of gut microbial metabolic products. Over the last decade, research has revealed a plethora of complicated interactions between the microbiota and the immunological and metabolic systems, many of which have important consequences for human health. Therefore in review, we emphasise accumulating evidence suggesting the microbiome exerts effect on the brain via multiple routes linking the stomach to the central nervous system. While knowledge of the influence of gut bacteria on neurological function is still developing, understanding the gut-microbiome-brain links has the potential to transform neuroscience by discovering possibly new etiologies for mental and neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, our results show that patients with diverse brain disorders have changed bacterial metabolites, as well as the possible neuroactive effects of gut-derived SCFAs, p-cresol, serotonin derivatives, and bacterial amyloids on disease onset and progression. The results of this study might lead to more understanding of the gut–brain axis and, as a response, to possible diagnostic, therapeutic, or preventative measures for brain disorders.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong></p> Asif Shahzad, Qurat-ul-Ain, Shoukat Hussain, Rizwan Mehmood, Muhammad Nauman Jaan Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000