FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES <p>Frontiers in Chemical Sciences is a biannual Journal published from Department of Chemistry, The Women University, Multan. Journal covers the concepts, innovation and Research in all branches of chemistry including Applied, Analytical, Organic, Inorganic, Physical and Biochemistry and their sub-disciplines. FCS publishes original article<strong>, </strong>review article<strong>, </strong>short communications of a high scientific and ethical standard in the Chemical sciences.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF </strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Dr Uzma Quraishi</strong></p> <p>Vice Chancellor</p> <p>The Women University, Multan.</p> <p><strong>EDITOR-IN-CHIEF </strong></p> <p><strong>Dr. Sara Musaddiq</strong> (Director QEC)</p> <p>Department of Chemistry</p> <p>The Women University, Multan.</p> en-US (Dr. Sara Musaddiq) (Asghar Ali) Wed, 05 Jan 2022 16:59:12 +0000 OJS 60 Natural Sorbent’s Bio-Sorption Efficiency for Liquid Phase Scavenging of Pesticides from Wastewater <p>The removal of pesticides from waste water is a major concern of today and poses a great threat to the human and environmental health hence this research study aimed at assessing the efficiency of the used tea residue as a low-cost bio-adsorbent for the treatment of waste water containing pesticides. Therefore, to carry out the intended research project, initially the adsorbent was activated in order to increase its efficiency or adsorption capacity. Moreover, batch experiments were conducted with three pesticides (2,4-D, Carbaryl and Imidacloprid) at variable parameters (pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial concentration) and the effects of these variables on the adsorption capacity was assessed.</p> <p>UV-spectroscopy was put into service for obtaining the concentrations of pesticide after the contact between the adsorbate (pesticide) and adsorbent (activated tea residue) while the characterization of the adsorbent was performed using the FTIR spectroscopy. The non-activated tea-residue removed suitable amounts of pesticides from aqueous solution but the activation process enhanced the natural adsorbent's efficiency. The optimum adsorbent dose for the removal of all two pesticides (2,4-D and impidacloprid) was same, that is 10mg while, the optimum adsorbent dose for carbaryl was 30mg. Whereas, the optimal pH and pesticide concentration varied for all three pesticide. Firstly, large amount of 2,4-D was removed at acidic pH with 10 ppb pesticide concentration, secondly, carbaryl at basic pH with 1ppb and lastly, imidacloprid at neutral pH with 1 ppb. Under optimal conditions the activated tea residue removed 99.99% of 2,4-D, 99.5% of carbaryl and 99.7% of imidacloprid.</p> Saima Nasreen, Uzaira Rafique, Amna Khan, Sidra Gran, Zainab Khatoon Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of total Chloride/Bromide Ions and total Hardness of Drinking Water of Uthal and LUAWMS, Lasbela, Baluchistan, Pakistan. <p>Water is essential for life. Its quality directly effects plants, animals and humans. Contaminated water can not only be a cause of several diseases in humans but also can affect the growth and quality of plants.&nbsp; Drinking water of Lasbela university of Agriculture, water and marine sciences (LUAWMS) and Uthal city was tested for its total hardness and total chloride/bromide concentration. Mohr’s method was used to determine the concentration of chloride and total hardness was measured in terms of Mg/Ca concentration using volumetric analysis.&nbsp; A total of five samples were collected. Three samples were taken from LUAWMS and two samples were taken from Uthal city. Samples taken from LUAWMS had higher amounts of chloride and Mg than the ones taken from Uthal city. The concentrations of total chloride/bromide in samples were 0.71, 0.3, 2.13, 1.77 and 2.13 g/L respectively and total hardness in samples were 4.86, 4.86, 9.72,11.42 g/L.</p> Sonia Tariq, Muhammad Aslam, Khalil Hasni, Alam Khan, Shabir Ahmed, Muhammad Khan, Salman Jan, Mureed Hussain Khosa, Samiullah, Fehmeeda Afzal Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Oxidation of Some Dihydropyridine Derivatives Via Different Methods <p>Three different methods were used for the oxidation of dihydropyridines into pyridine derivatives. In two methods dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as solvent and catalyst as well whereas in third method bleaching powder was used. All the three methods are found efficient for the oxidation purpose. The yields obtained was moderate to good (25% to 64%). By oxidation methods, we synthesized ten derivatives which were characterized by different available spectroscopic techniques like mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (<sup>1</sup>H &amp; <sup>13</sup>C) and elemental analysis. From this data it was confirmed that in all oxidative derivatives –NH peak disappeared in proton NMR spectra.</p> Ansa Madeeha zafar, Mussarat Jabeen; Noreen Aslam, Saima Anjum; Abdul Ghafoor, Misbah ul-Ain Khan Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Systematic Review on the Use of Different Therapeutic Agents to Control Dengue Virus & other Associated Symptoms <p><em>Dengue is an infectious viral disease transmitted by the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. Signs and symptoms associated with dengue vary with the severity of the disease. The present study aims to inquire about different therapeutic strategies used for the treatment of dengue. We investigated the effectiveness of different remedies such as fluid treatment, immunological treatment, antiviral treatment, herbal treatment, plant extract, and vaccines. Our review examines some of the published articles and studies on these strategies. Google Scholar, Web of Science, and other library databases were searched for relevant articles on the nature of dengue fever, the transmission of dengue virus, a possible mechanism of action of papaya, antiviral agents, vaccines, immunological treatment, and plant extracts. Fluids were found to be effective in the maintenance of normal blood volume. C. papaya leaf extract and capsules are effective in decreasing thrombocytopenia associated with dengue fever, increasing WBCs, RBCs and stabilizing normal hematocrit levels and other effects. Anti-viral agents play a role in inhibiting the process of activity of dengue viruses by inhibiting them at different levels e.g. translation, replication, etc. Different vaccines are developed for the prevention of dengue fever, but there is one vaccine that is licensed in some particular countries where dengue is originating. Vaccines having different efficiencies and safety against all dengue virus strains are under the process of development in various institutes.</em></p> Farah Deeba, Kaynaat Sohail, Wafa Iqbal, Asma Altaf, Sidra Younis, Nadia Iqbal Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An overview of free Radicals & antioxidants and its Deletenous actions. <p>In modern years, there has been a large dealing of work toward the area of free radical chemistry. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are create by our body by various endogenic systems, influence to different physio chemical conditions or unhealthy states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function. If free radicals overwhelm the body's ability to modulate them, a condition known as oxidative stress ensues. Free radicals thus unfavorable alter lipids, proteins, and DNA and activate a number of human diseases. Hence application of external source of antioxidants can assist in coping this oxidative stress. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. The present review provides a brief overview on oxidative stress mediate cellular damages and role of dietary antioxidants as functional foods in the organization of human diseases. We need to take balance diet which provide much more antioxidants to lower risks of health and run to life longer.The purpose of this review is that we want awareness related to sources of antioxidants from plants and highlight the studies of antioxidants and free radicals which provide prove for maintaining healthy aging.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong>&nbsp; antioxidant, free radicals, aging, oxidative stress.</p> <p><strong>Graphically Abstract;</strong></p> <p><strong><img src=""></strong></p> Asif Shahzad, Shoukat Hussain, Nazima Anwar, Abdul Karim, Ume Aeman, Muhammad Javid Iqbal Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Dose Distribution Indices by using RapidArc Technique for the Treatment of Gynecological Cancer <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>This study describes the distribution of radiation doses to investigate the planned target volume (PTV) of gynecological cancers using the RapidArc technique. The optimal treatment plan options are developed by involvement of different dosimetric parameters including Homogeneity index (HI), Conformity index (HI), Uniformity index (UI), Radical dose homogeneity index (rDHI) and Moderate dose homogeneity index (mDHI).</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Thirteen patients diagnosed with gynecological cancer were treated through RapidArc on DHX Varian linear accelerator with 6MV and 15MV photon beams. This therapy was carried out with linac.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The calculated dosimetric parameters for planning target volume were found in the ranges; HI (1.08 to 1.20), CI (0.985 to 0.997 in RTOG), CI (1.003 to 1.005 in ICRU), UI (1.05 to 1.13), rDHI (0.57 to 0.75) and mDHI (0.88 to 0.93).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It has been concluded that all the calculated indices are within the range specified by radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG; 1993), International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) and OLIVER; except in rare cases may be due to complex geometry, tumor volume range, and low radiation dose.This treatment can be further added to calculate other dose indices by using higher energy beams and different prescription doses for different fractions.</p> Shumaila Saleem, Aalia Nazir, Maria Atiq, Faiza Saleem, Zahida Batool, Hafeez Ullah Janjua, Atia Atiq, Rahila Kouser Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Hepatitis B & C in Bahawalpur Region, Punjab, Pakistan. <p>Hepatitis is a worldwide problem. Until now, six types of viruses related to hepatitis has been discovered and among them hepatitis B and C virus are most prominent. Both of these viruses can be spread easily and can cause significant health damage. Blood transfusion, unprotected sex and reuse of used syringes and razors are the main reasons for transferring the virus. ICT kits are easily available in market which were used to detect the presence of hepatitis B and C. These kits are easy to use but their efficiency is not 100%. This study was conducted to observe the ratio of hepatitis in Bahawalpur region and it was observed that overall incidence of HCV is more as compared to HBV. The percentage prevalence in male population (37%) was higher than female population (35%) and the percentage of HCV is higher in poor families (41%) than middle class families (33%). &nbsp;&nbsp;Furthermore, virus was more prevalent in middle aged&nbsp;&nbsp; male then younger and older persons. As hepatitis is frequently propagating among the people of Pakistan, which causing great lose of man power and economy every year. However, Public awareness through health education program and seminars should be held in regular interval, and vaccination programs to decrease the burden of HBV and HCV from the population of Bahawalpur Punjab province of Pakistan. There is an urgent need to undertake such studies in other populations so that populations with higher prevalence can be identified and ways can be devised for the prevention and cure of these viral infections.</p> Muhammad Khalid, Saif ur Rehman, Ahmad Ali, Sheikh Muhammad Azam, Rabia Yaqoob, Muhammad Faizan, Shoaib Hassan, Abir Ishtiauqe, Azam Ali, Muhammad Imran Tousif, Muhammad Mateen Tahir Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Obesity in Male and Female Infertility <p>Obesity have negative effects on the fertility of males and females. In females the obesity can induce hormonal imbalances for example adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, omentin, chemerin) on reproductive axis, irregularities in menstrual cycle, reduce conception rate and complications in pregnancy. The adverse effect is insulin resistance and insulin excess that is associated with PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome)-irregular periods. In males the obesity affects HPG gland that in turn disturb the endocrine regulation of reproductive function with high level of estrogen and low level of testosterone, progesterone, and SHBG (sex-hormone binding globulin). DNA damage of sperm, high scrotal temperature because of highly fatted scrotum area, low production of sperms and decreased motility of sperm are all the effects of obesity in males that cause infertility. The aim of the review article is to thoroughly cover the effect of obesity on reproductive functions, hormonal concentrations &amp; fertility potential in females &amp; males.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Dur E Maknoon Razia , Asif Shahzad, Shoukat Hussain , Nimra Bashir Qureshi , Nazima Anwaar, Amreen Aftab Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fabrication and Determination of Radiation Sensitive Features of Tissue Equivalent Gels in Radiation Dosimetry and Diagnostic Radiology <p>Various types of gel dosimeters have been developed so far with the names PVAL gel and MAGIC gel, have been abundantly applied in medical physics. This work is divided into two parts. First, this study aims to analyze an ultrasonic imaging device for accurate patient positioning and organ motion detection during prostate radiotherapy. The images of gel were taken before and after the irradiation, using CT, ultrasound and MRI and dose profiles were plotted. This gel will be used as a prostate phantom for the applications in trans-rectal ultrasound imaging. Secondly, this work aims to develop a realistic artificial breast Using PVAL Gel. The gel was X-rayed on a digital mammography machine which has 3 different programs which will select 3 different beam energies. Results for 2 sample thicknesses were compared against Perspex. PVAL gel was confirmed to be a close match to the Perspex for three beam energies.</p> maria, Atia Atiq, Saeed Ahmad Buzdar Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Human Population of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. <p>Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a disease caused when the production of insulin from pancreas is reduced. Blindness, failure of kidneys and severe amputations may be the ultimate consequences associated with this disease. The patients suffering from diabetes are increasing at an alarming rate and WHO predicted that this number will go up with a very high acceleration in coming future (380 million patients by 2025). In Pakistan where the health budged is quite low as compared to its neighboring countries, prevalence of diabetes will be a huge burden to its economy. So, this study was conducted to estimate the ratio of diabetes patients in Bahawalpur city. A total of 716 peoples were tested and 308 were positive for diabetes mean the ratio was 43.01% which was quite alarming. Females were found to be more affected (43.62%) as compared to males (42.43%). This disease is more prevalent in families with normal socioeconomic statu. Based on these results we suggest a further in-depth study so in future we could cope with this emerging issue. &nbsp;</p> Muhammad Khalid, Saif ur Rehman, Ahmad Ali, Sheikh Muhammad Azam, Rabia Yaqoob, Syed Muhammad Faraz Shah, Azam Ali, Mahjabeen Zohra, Shaikh Muhammad Abdullah, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Imran Tousil Copyright (c) 2022 FRONTIERS IN CHEMICAL SCIENCES Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000